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The update function simply returns the initial model. We’ll expand it to be more meaningful in a bit. Finally, we’re ready to display our view. Run elm-reactor from the beginning-elm directory in terminal if it’s not running already, and go to this URL in your browser: http://localhost:8000/elm-examples/Counter.elm . You should see something like this in the top left corner of your browser:

Our app is utterly uninteresting at the moment. The buttons don’t do anything. That’s because we haven’t specified what should happen when the buttons are clicked. Let’s do that next. The first thing to do is define messages that represent the actions users can take. Add the following type definition right above the update function in Counter.elm .

The new type Msg represents the messages our app can respond to. It’s a simple union type with two constants. When the + button is clicked, our app will receive the message called Increment and clicking the - button will generate the Decrement message.

The term “message” doesn’t have any special meaning in Elm. It’s not a special type or a data structure. We could have very well called it “action” or “event” or “do this thing”. The official documentation and the Elm community prefer “message” to others. Therefore, we should also use the same term.

Unlike Model , we didn’t define Msg as a type alias because there’s no built-in type in Elm that can correctly represent our messages. In contrast, our Model is just an int value. So we made it a type alias that simply redefines the existing Int type. You may wonder why do we even need to define Model . We could simply replace Model with Int in the initialModel and update function’s type annotations like this:

And everything should work as before. That’s a valid point. However, by defining Model , we’ve given a name to the value that flows through our app. This makes our code much more readable. In a simple app like our counter, the benefits of naming things properly aren’t huge, but in a large application, a well named domain concept such as Model can add tremendous value from maintenance standpoint.

Let’s modify the update function so that it increments or decrements the model based on which message the app receives.

We made a subtle change to the update function’s type annotation. The message is now represented by Msg instead of msg which is just a type variable. Unlike number , msg doesn’t have any special meaning in Elm. We could have used any random name to represent a generic message in the previous version like this:

CEB has a new Outreach Pageto showcase the STEM outreach work of CEB graduate students!

A species of, a diverse lichen genus being studied by CEB student Joel Mercado-Diaz.

Workshop on lichen identification techniques taught by CEB student Joel Mercado-Diaz to Cuban biologists.

CEB student Laura Southcott studies the genetics of mate preference in Heliconius butterflies.

CEB graduate student Daniel Hooper researches the role chromosomal inversions play in avian diversification.

An opossum prepped by David Grossnickle, who studies the evolution of mammalian jaw morphology. CT image by Julia Schultz.

CEB student Amy Henry at her field site on Tatoosh Island.

Welcome to CEB!

The Committee on Evolutionary Biology (CEB) is a unique interdepartmental and inter-institutional graduate student training program dedicated to the study of Evolutionary Biology. Faculty and students in the program are engaged in interdisciplinary studies at time scales that range from single generations to the entire history of life and at organizational scales from the molecular to the global.


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I am interested in the origin and evolutionary history of mammals during the Mesozoic Era (i.e., the Age of Dinosaurs), which is a geologic span of time from 250 to 66 million years ago (mya). This period encompasses the first two thirds of mammalian history. Traditionally, early mammals were described as small, nocturnal insectivores that managed to survive past the demise of non-avian dinosaurs, subsequently radiating into the wide breadth of ecological niches they now occupy. However, incredible fossil discoveries over the past 20 years have upturned this view and demonstrate that Mesozoic mammals achieved surprising ecological, morphological, and taxonomic diversity before the extinction of dinosaurs. Thus, these study organisms offer a unique opportunity to make considerable contributions to our understanding of mammalian origins and early history.

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David Grossnickle in Montana with a T. rex skull that’s been wrapped in a protective plaster cast.


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Congratulations to John Park, recipient of the Wayne C. Booth Graduate Student Prize for Excellence in Teaching!

CEB graduate student David Grossnickle is interetested in why certain mammal groups have diversified through time and survived extinctin events. In his recent publication in Kenneth Cole Reaction Mens Other Half Slipon Loafer Black 105 M US 0YuaH71zq9
, David proposes that mammal teeth, jaw bones and muscles evolved to produce side-to-side motions of the jaw, or yaw, that allowed our earliest ancestors to grind food with their molars and eat a more diversified diet.


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